The St. Augustine’s Cultural Center has received funds from the Nevada Commission for Cultural Affairs to prepare a condition assessment, programmatic analysis, and rehabilitation recommendations for St. Augustine’s Catholic Church, located in Austin, Nevada. The church is in the beginning phases of rehabilitation as a cultural center to serve Austin and Central Nevada. The St. Augustine’s Cultural Center retained the services of architect Peter Serafin of Carter + Burton P.L.C. and architectural historian J. Daniel Pezzoni of Landmark Preservation Associates to prepare the rehabilitation plan. Serafin and Pezzoni documented the 1866 Gothic/Italianate church in March 2006 and prepared this report. The report has several components: an introduction, an architectural assessment and recommendations, and an analysis of historic finishes. The report is accompanied by a samples notebook containing wallpaper, wall and ceiling cloth, and newspaper samples collected at the site, and a CD that includes plan and elevation drawings of the building as it exists and proposed, photographs taken by Pezzoni and Serafin, and scans from the samples notebook.
St. Augustine’s Catholic Church, located in Austin, Nevada, is Nevada’s oldest Catholic church building and also one of its finest. Construction of the imposing brick building overlooking Austin’s downtown was begun and largely completed in 1866. The exterior is distinguished by a bell tower with Gothic Revival and Italianate details; the interior retains many early features including grained pews, Gothic confessionals, and a decoratively painted Henry C. Kilgen organ in a Gothic case. In 1939 the parish hired Rafael Jolly to paint murals for the interior, and the vibrantly colored scenes of events in the lives of Christ and St. Augustine are today the building’s artistic highlight. The basement, used as a school and living quarters, preserves decorative floor painting and early wallpapers. From St. Augustine’s Parish priests such as Fr. Edward Kelly and Fr. Dominick Monteverde fanned out to establish Catholicism in eastern Nevada and Utah in the 1860s and 1870s. With Austin’s eventual decline St. Augustine’s was made into a mission church, and services there ceased at the end of the twentieth century.
The work on which this report is based was greatly facilitated by Cultural Center Chairman Jan Morrison of Austin, Nevada, with assistance from Arthur H. Wolf of Wolf Consulting in Las Vegas, Dee Helming of the Austin Chamber of Commerce, and Mella R. Harmon of the Nevada Historical Society in Reno.
St. Augustine’s Catholic Church is in overall sound condition. Its sturdy construction has allowed it to serve a useful function for many years. The building is now, however at a tipping point. If items are not addressed in the near future, either stabilized through constant repair, or remedied through a rehabilitation process, the building will deteriorate into an unsound state. The buildings roof needs to be repaired or replaced. The structural deflection questions at the roof and exterior walls need to be studied and addressed. The building needs to be bird-proofed, and exterior openings made weatherproof. If these items alone are addressed the soundness of the building would be assured. The proposed use of the building as the St. Augustine’s Cultural Center is one of the highest reuses of this historic structure. The building has not had any intermediate uses since its use as a church ended. It is intact and can continue use as an assembly building. It will continue to be classified, by the International Building Code, as an A-3 Assembly occupancy. The building’s use as a cultural center would be enhanced by the addition of modern systems and amenities. The addition of accessibility features, including entries and an elevator, would allow a larger audience to use the facility. The addition of a new electric system, heating-ventilating-air conditioning (HVAC), and plumbing as well as new spaces including toilets, kitchen, and office space will allow the St. Augustine’s Cultural Center to truly serve the community.
General recommendations for exterior and interior rehabilitation treatments may be found in the National Park Service’s series of Preservation Briefs available online at: http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/TPS/briefs/presbhom.htm.
Exterior stone and brick work needs minor repair in areas of loose or missing masonry. Any repointing should be in accordance with recommendations in NPS Preservation Briefs. It is recommended that the mason confer with the Nevada SHPO on mortar recipe and technique prior to beginning work.
Deteriorated window and door trim to be repaired as needed using pieced in wood or wood epoxy such as Abatron or similar. If sections of trim are beyond salvaging they may be replaced in kind with new wood milled to the same molding profiles.
Existing historic doors to be retained and repaired as needed (individual door treatments discussed in their respective sections).
Repair and reroof existing entry cover. Metal standing seam roof is to be installed.
A new stone and/or concrete stair platform, accessible entry ramp, and steps are proposed for outside the existing entry. The ramp should have a rise of 1:20 and a simple painted mild steel guard rail.
The wood sign over the entry should be archived in the church to prevent further deterioration. It may be suitable for a museum exhibit.
Several of the entry door panels have cracked and need to be repaired with wood filler of appropriate color (the color of the graining on the exterior and interior faces of the door differs). A storm door of quality construction and simple unobtrusive design (extensive glass area, wood or painted metal frame) may be added if deemed necessary for thermal and/or security reasons. The existing door’s exterior finish should be retained as is.
Existing window sashes to be retained with replacement of damaged panes and reputtying and other repairs as needed. Exterior or interior storm windows should be considered (exterior storms have the dual advantages of protecting the existing windows and providing thermal efficiency). Storm windows should have painted or enameled metal frames and their cross pieces should line up with the meeting rails of the sashes behind.
The existing doorway on the southeast wall is to be reopened and a new insulated steel door and frame installed. The door and frame are to be galvanized and painted and of plain unembellished design. (This entry is one of two new egresses proposed for the building.)
A new ramp from the south corner of the building will allow accessibility to the lower level. Simple guardrail and hand rails made of mild steel and of simple design are to be installed on this new ramp and stair. (Note: For legibility the drawings do not indicate balusters or similar elements on the guard rails at this and other locations, although balusters would be necessary for safety in the actual construction.)
The existing chain link fence is to be replaced by a simple painted mild steel guard rail.
The sacristy roof structure is to be replaced with a new wood roof structure of similar form (see below for new roof sheathing specifications). Reopen sacristy entry by removal of bricks. New steel lintel to be installed to support the existing jack arch over the entry. The reopened entry is to be at grade. (This entry is one of two new egresses proposed for the building.)
The existing circular window on the south east façade is to be repaired as needed. A new wood exterior storm window is to be installed.
The existing window sashes are to be replaced with new sashes with the same muntin configurations. These window sashes should have insulated glass with muntins on the exterior and interior with the same or similar molding profile to the existing muntins. Ultraviolet light-resistant glass would be optimal.
The wood louvers in the bell tower openings to be replaced in kind with new wood louvers of the same dimension and configuration and painted and insect screens to be installed inside the louvers.
The existing roof brackets are to be examined individually and repaired or replaced as needed. If repaired they may be patched with pieced in wood or with Abatron or similar wood epoxy. If replaced they should be replaced by new brackets milled to match the old.
Existing metal roofing to be removed from the main roof and sacristy. Existing skip sheathing as well as soffit and rake trim to be inspected and repaired/replaced as needed. Install new 24 Gauge standing seam metal roofing with a hand crimped ridge, new half-round metal gutters, and round metal downspouts. Downspouts and gutters are to be galvanized steel. Roofing, gutters, and downspouts are to be painted. Structural work (described below) is to precede main roof reroofing.
The bell tower to be fully examined (temporary scaffolding to be installed to the full height). Inspection and reattachment of existing material , with new material used as necessary. This work is to accomplished by a trained Steeple Jack as well as a professional Structural Engineer. New roofs and existing metal cladding to be sealed with a paintable sealant painted with oil based paint.
The double-leaf door at the base of the bell tower has weathered paint (photos 93 and 94). The weathering adds to the authenticity of the exterior, however repainting will help protect the wood. If desired the doors may be repainted in the same color with appropriate reconditioning of the wood prior to painting. The paint on the transom panels above the doors is more protected and in much better condition and should be retained as is. The plywood doors in the secondary entrances flanking the bell tower should be replaced with solid-core wood panel doors that may be painted the same color as the center doors. Four-panel design would be optimal for these doors, although six-panel may be used. Note: the north door will be inoperable since the elevator will be located behind it.
St. Augustine’s successive layers of wallpaper, located in the two finished lower level rooms, are among the building’s most significant features. However, the wallpaper is in deteriorated condition and for the most part would not be appropriate as a finish surfaces in a rehabilitated space. (Note: The wallpaper has been extensively documented and samples taken for archiving.) Another significant aspect of the basement walls is the vestige of the original blackboard on the southeast wall of the main room. Some sections of this feature-which is essentially black paint on white paint or the original white plaster finish-appear to be in relatively good condition; others appear to be flaking. Also, areas of plaster on this wall appear to be weak or failing.
The general approach to the lower level walls should be encapsulation. A new wall finish should be applied in a way that is non-destructive or causes minimal disturbance to the underlying wallpaper. The new finish should increase the thickness of the walls as little as possible to avoid “burying” trim. Two or three areas of historic wall finish may be exhibited under glass. These are 1) the area of wood panel pattern and silver striped wallpaper around the center door to the storage area; 2) the lower left corner of the blackboard exposed during wallpaper removal; and potentially 3) a section of the crosshatch-pattern wallpaper with Art Deco border of which large sections survive at the northwest end of the main room. The glass could be ultraviolet light-resistant and mounted on removable frames to facilitate future repair.
Portions of the painted floor finish in the lower level main room appear to be in good condition and relatively wear resistant whereas other portions flaked slightly when gently rubbed with a paper towel during cleaning for photography. The painting is a character-defining feature and ideally will be left visible. The SHPO and/or a painting contractor or supplier should be consulted about a clear finish that can be applied to the floor so that the painting will be visible but also protected from wear. The finish should be one that will not damage the painting or alter its appearance. Ideally it should be a finish that can be stripped in the future without damaging the underlying paint. Care should be taken in cleaning the decorative painting.
The modern bathroom partition in the south corner should be removed, taking care not to damage floor, wall, and trim surfaces.
A new floor should be constructed in the present storage area along the northeast wall (see plan). The existing floor boards and any understructure should be removed and a new floor structure built with pressure treated lumber. The new floor structure should be provided new foundation/bearing. New concrete slabs to be poured in this area for the new boiler/hot water heater, elevator machine room, and elevator pit (see below for description of elevator). A new vapor barrier is to be added at the grade level on top the unexcavated dirt and along the side wall. Salvageable existing floor boards to be reused as the new floor surface, supplemented as needed by new wood floor boards in less visible areas. Salvaged floor boards to be sanded down and finished with polyurethane. Note: Excavation and other work associated with the construction of the new floor and concrete slabs may turn up artifacts that should not be destroyed or discarded. Note: Pews, railings, and other architectural components stored in the existing storage area should remain in the building, perhaps compactly stored in a specially created storage compartment to be located above the proposed toilet and elevator machine rooms. The compartment could also store other components that may have to be removed in the rehabilitation.
The exposed brick construction of the storage area’s southwest wall should remain exposed. It should be cleaned but no sealants or other finishes applied to it. An exception would be in the kitchen area where code would require a clear matte siloxane sealant.
New partitions in the lower level are to be gypsum board over wood studs. The elevator shaft is to be 2 hour construction and to include any blocking/bracing required for the elevator machinery.
New trim such as baseboards and door trim to match the existing flat trim on this level.
The existing floors along the south west side of this level are to be cleaned, clear coated, and waxed. The floor at the rebuilt floor area may be painted a neutral color or given a natural wood finish, clearcoated, and waxed.
The ceiling is to receive 2 layers or 5/8″ type X gypsum board with an optional class A rated fabric cover. The fabric cover would evoke the cloth ceiling that was the historic finish.
The dropped ceiling is to be removed above the main entry and a new floor/ceiling is to be installed at the level above the front windows. This new floor is to match the existing at this location except it is to be slightly higher so as not to interfere with the door and window trim. New rough wood floors and ladders to be installed in the bell tower to allow access. A new pump for the organ, or the rebuilt existing pump, to be supported by a partial floor at the loft level.
The elevator enclosure needs to be 2 hr fire rated. The walls should be painted a neutral color, perhaps one that harmonizes with existing wall colors, to lessen the visual intrusion of the enclosure. It should not be expressed as a historic feature; that is, there should be no attempt to replicate graining, stenciling, etc. The elevator doors and frames are to be metal and 1.5hr fire rated. The ceiling of the elevator shaft is to be 2 hr fire rated.
The floor of the sacristy is to be rebuilt as necessary. The floor boards are to be pulled up and the framing removed so that the area under the floor may be excavated to provide proper clearance between the new floor structure and grade. The perimeter foundation and any interior structural supports that may exist are to be repaired or rebuilt as needed and unobtrusive vents added. The vents may be simple grills or may be in the form of gaps in the brickwork with mesh behind. Salvageable floor structural members to be reused and supplemented with new pressure treated lumber. Salvageable existing floor boards to be reused and deteriorated floor boards to be replaced in kind. This floor is to be painted. The sacristy ceiling is to be reattached. Note: Excavation and other work associated with the construction of the new sacristy floor may turn up artifacts that should not be destroyed or discarded. The sacristy roof is to be replaced. Brick is to be removed from the existing exterior door opening and a new at grade entry is to be built in its place. This entry is to be wheelchair accessible and will provide additional egress from the upper level.
A new two-level hydraulic elevator is to be installed near the existing interior stair. This elevator would void the use of that existing stair from the lower level to the upper level. The stair to the choir loft may need to be reworked to remain useable; if so, changes to the existing stair enclosure should be kept to a minimum. The exact location of this elevator will be determined by the availability of space for an 8″ elevator pit. If possible the wall of the elevator enclosure that faces the sanctuary should be set back from the edge of the gallery (balcony) above. The new elevator cab should have approximate dimensions of 54″x 44″. This elevator need not meet accessibility standards ANSI A 117.1.
The existing metal roofing on the main roof is to be removed in a small area to allow full inspection of the main roof structure. All framing members and connections are to be inspected for corrosion and deflection. A structural analysis is to be performed by a structural engineer to determine the cause of the current roof deflection and whether the cause of the exterior wall movement is related to the design or condition of the existing roof framing. Roof framing repair is to be made as necessary from above leaving as much of the temporary roof intact as possible, allowing the building to stay as closed to the weather as possible. Budgeting is to be made for roof framing repair as well as the installation of a steel tie rod system to support the masonry walls. The outward movement of the exterior brick walls is less than 1/3 of the total thickness at the time of inspection (maximum of 4″ in relation to a 17″ wall). The existing temporary bracing should stay in place until a complete structural study is made and permanent structural measures are in place. It is preferable to remedy both the deflection of the roof and walls through the repair of the roof framing alone, using a system which is not visible. The Structural Engineer’s recommendation and repair strategy will dictate the level and type of repair needed. The bell tower and steeple are to be fully scaffolded to inspect, repair, and paint the exterior metal cladding. At this time the structure of the steeple is to be inspected by a structural engineer and an assessment made.
The ceiling and its 1939-40 decorative painting should be retained and cleaned with replacement in kind of damaged boards. Any new boards would be painted to match the existing boards. Cleaning of the upper sides of the ceiling boards will be facilitated by and may occur during the structural work on the roof
The existing opening between the bell tower and the main attic is to be made taller to facilitate attic access and a door or panel is to be added.
Areas of damaged, detaching, or missing wall plaster not painted with murals may be repaired with new plaster painted the same beige-brown color as the historic wall finishes. Missing stenciling may be recreated or there may be no attempt to replicate the stenciling. Another approach may be to evoke the stenciling in outline (rather than filled figures) in the same color so as to continue the rhythm of the historic pattern but distinguish the old work from the new.
Advice from art conservators should be sought regarding the philosophical and technical issues involved in the conservation of the murals, but one possible approach is proposed here. Rather than attempt a museum-quality restoration of the murals, a less intensive and less expensive approach may be taken that will arrest deterioration and improve the appearance of the murals but that will acknowledge their condition as a reflection of the building’s history. As a first step the murals (and other wall finishes) may be gently hand cleaned using a mild detergent. Streaks that appear to be from rain or melt water running down the walls carrying dirt from pigeon guano in the roof may be removed by this approach. Where paint has flaked from murals (such as the top of the Flight into Egypt and St. Augustine-St. Monica murals) the approach may be to paint the exposed white plaster a neutral color and to repaint missing segments of the painted frame. This would make the missing image area less obvious but would still signal that a loss has occurred. (Fortunately the damage has not severely affected any of the painted figures.)
The floor should be cleaned but otherwise left in its authentic worn condition. If a finish is desired, a historic finish like floor wax should be considered. Any severely worn or structurally unsound floor boards should be replaced in kind.
The pews are interconnected and could not be easily moved or stacked. It is recommended that the pews be left as is. Touch up of historic graining may be attempted but is not essential. The wear is not sufficient to compromise the appearance of the pews and in fact contributes to an appearance of authenticity.
Heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC)Plumbing
A whole building type fan to be installed in the new floor of the bell tower to pull air through the building.
The lower level to have hot water Runtel type radiators under the south windows. Fin tube radiators at other locations.
The upper level to have under floor hot water heat, with a Runtel type radiator in the sacristy.
The lower level kitchen, toilets, and HVAC room to be ventilated. These vents to exit on the south east exterior wall.
Ceiling fans to be installed in the upper level main space.
Two new accessible toilets and a small kitchen are to be located along the northeast wall in the lower level. The venting for the plumbing stacks is to be routed through the sacristy and out the sacristy roof.
Lower level lighting to be modern “Cable” type low voltage fixtures. This lighting mimics the existing exposed wiring.
Upper level existing pendant lights to rewired/refurbished.
Track lights to be installed on the top of the confessionals and in the gallery (balcony). These lights are to illuminate the ceiling to provide reflected light for the space.
Wall-mounted light fixtures of appropriate, unobtrusive, simple design to be installed outside each exterior door except the front doors. The front doors to be illuminated with up-lights and walkway lights. The up-lights will light the front of the church and bell tower.
New electrical service and new wiring to be installed throughout the building. The wiring in the attic of the upper level to be accomplished during roof repair. The new electric service should enter the building on the southeast side or underground. The electric meter should be on the southeast side.
In the upper level, outlets for power and data are to be set into the floor, utilizing brass floor outlets with hinged covers.
In the lower level, outlets for power and data are to be provided in the new and interior walls. At existing masonry walls, both power and data cabling are to be run in wooden chase built into an enlarged base trim. This chase should be built to allow power and data changes to occur in the future.
Exterior outlets to be provided for the front terrace and outside the main (existing) lower level main entrance. The exterior outlets should be as unobtrusive as practicable.
R-38 fiberglass batt insulation to be added to the main level and sacristy ceilings during roof repair.
R-30 insulation to be added to the lower level ceiling leaving space for hydronic heat. The lower level northeast wall to be insulated with R-19 fiberglass blanket insulation. This insulation is to be placed on the outer brick wall and against the the earthen bank.
Analysis of Historic Finishes
St. Augustine’s Catholic Church preserves a remarkable range of decorative finishes dating from the early years of the building’s use after its construction in 1866 through the mid-twentieth century. In March 2006 architectural historian Dan Pezzoni documented decorative treatments and features including wallpaper, floor finishes, graining, marbling, linoleum, and carpeting as well as newspaper fragments and a number of construction features. The work centered on the documentation of historic wallpapers in the church basement that will likely be removed, covered over, or otherwise adversely affected by future rehabilitation. Twenty-nine types of wallpaper and two types of wall cloths were identified; they are described in the text and pictured in the photo CD that accompanies the report. The earliest wallpapers may date to the late 1860s and the most recent ones date to a 1939-40 rehabilitation. The wallpapers and wall cloths are identified as types and are keyed numerically to the images in the photo CD. Border papers are identified as separate types even when it is believed that they are associated with specific wallpapers. Samples were taken of many of the wallpaper and wall cloth types, stored in archival sleeves, and submitted as a product of the project. The wallpaper samples include some layered samples that have not been separated for analysis; these may be the subject of future laboratory analysis. The mural painting and organ in the main level received cursory attention; the condition and rehabilitation approaches for these features should be addressed by specialists.
Main Level Walls
Vestiges of early paint schemes survive in the stair enclosure under the gallery. The wall of the enclosure was shifted outward to provide more space for the stair inside, probably in the early twentieth century. In the process a narrow strip of pre-1939 wall finishes was encapsulated. The more recent finish, which probably dates to after 1900, has a beige ground color with a double stripe of darker beige as a “chair rail” running at the level of the window sills. The earlier finish, which probably dates to before 1899, has a decorative red border on an olive drab ground (photo 114). The border, which also runs horizontally at the level of the window sills, appears to have a complex pattern that may incorporate two or more hues of red as a three-dimensional shadow effect and may be painted onto a tan color in addition to the olive drab ground. This may be the rinceau or tendril-like border depicted in a series of interior photographs taken in 1899. Other evidence for early paint colors is found in the upper west corner of the nave where a brown color is visible under flaking ca. 1940 stenciling (photo 100).
It may be that the red border and the olive drab ground are the original decorative treatment in the nave since the stair partition in its earlier location appears to have been installed over it, whereas the beige paint scheme appears to have been painted up to a partition already in existence. Another possibility is the decoration dates to after the fire of November 22, 1880. This fire, described in the Reese River Reveille, destroyed or damaged several sections of the church:
When first discovered a blaze of fire was emerging from a window in the northeast corner of the building, and evidently had its origin on the chancel, or that part where the altar is placed. From there is communicated with the ceiling and ran along to the other end of the building to the gallery used by the choir and so on into the belfry. The chancel was entirely destroyed, the paint on the rows of seats in the body of the building much charred, as also the ceiling, only a few of the boards being burned. The organ, books and furniture in the gallery are apparently entirely destroyed, but fortunately the fire was kept from getting above the bell in the tower. All the valuables used in the chancel were locked up in a safe kept for that purpose.
The article concluded that the “loss will be considerable, probably not less than $2,200.” The fire and subsequent rebuilding may explain puzzling features such as evidence for alterations to the altar dais. It may also mean that the gallery railing, confessionals, and perhaps other features date to the early 1880s rather than the late 1860s, assuming they needed replacement after the fire.
A detailed analysis of the 1939-40 murals by Rafael Jolly is beyond the scope of this study, but information on finishes and graffiti in the bell tower is included. The upper part of the vestibule, above a ceiling that may have been added in the early twentieth century, has light gray walls that appear to be an early paint color (photos 86, 88, and 90). The door and window trim just above the drop ceiling-and hence protected from repainting that occurred in the lower part of the vestibule-have a warmer and slightly darker gray or possibly sepia color (photos 88 and 90). The beaded tongue-and-groove ceiling boards at the top of the vestibule are painted light gray (photo 85). There are a number of graffiti written in pencil on the walls of the upper part of the vestibule. The earliest observed date was August 26, 1914. Other graffiti read “Ringing Bell . . . Nov. 11, 1926 Armistice” and “Alexander Riddet painted this steeple Oct 9 1939 Age 71” (photo 86). Riddet’s graffito is attested by a notice in the November 11, 1939, issue of the Reese River Reveille which described “Alexander Reddit” as “the steeple-jack who has been repainting the steeple.” Names observed include Johnny Rast, Willy (?) Rast, Billy Gallaghan, Gus Seurat, Bill Gallager, B. Russell, Leo (?) Gallaghan, and [?-]nnie King. David Ramsdell “fixed tin on bell tower” on August 6, 1977.
Main Level Ceiling and Floor
The description of the 1880 fire seems to state that the paint on the ceiling boards was “much charred” but that only a few of the boards were burned. This could be explained by the nature of the fire, which passed through the enclosed attic space above the ceiling boards from the southeast end of the building to the northwest end, apparently heating but not destroying the majority of ceiling boards. Photographs taken in 1899 show the ceiling boards to be light in color, perhaps white or off white. At present the ceiling boards are painted light blue with beige medallions around the attachment points for the pendant lights, a color scheme the apparently dates to the 1939-40 repainting by Rafael Jolly (photo 97). In 1899 ornate light fixtures with either oil or gas lamps hung from the ceiling. The lamps may have had turn cocks, possible evidence of gas lighting.
The floorboards in the nave have worn to a gray appearance. No evidence was discovered to indicate they had ever been painted (carpeting was used on the main level in 1899). Floorboards that project under the raised dais and are visible at ceiling level in the basement have a natural ruddy yellow hue when cleaned (photo 48). It is possible the wood is redwood; if so, it likely dates to after the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1868, which would mean the present floor boards are not original. Perhaps the floor was replaced after the 1880 fire. Another Austin building that used California redwood in its construction was St. George’s Episcopal Church, built in 1877-78.
Main Level Decorative Finishes
The pews preserve at least two generations of graining (photos 108-113). Evidence for earlier graining is most evident on the pew closest to the gallery stair (photos 111 and 112). The number and name card plates have been removed from the end of the pew, revealing graining that is different in technique and color from the later graining. It may be that this earlier graining is the original 1860s graining, and that the later graining dates to after the 1880 fire which is known to have “much charred” the seats. The later graining is virtually identical to graining in Austin’s St. George’s Episcopal Church, built in 1877-78, which has a signature treatment using small crosses to suggest cracks in the painted knots (and also possibly a reference to the church function; photo 109). Another pew, the one nearest the west front entry, also shows the earlier graining where the identification plates have been removed (photo 113).
Graining similar to that of the pews also appears on the confessionals and gallery stair. The pattern of the graining on the stair matches that shown in an 1899 photo of the church interior. The photo also shows the stair enclosure in its earlier, set back position (it may not have been shifted forward until the 1939-40 church refurbishing). The cross finials on the confessionals, the chamfered posts that support the gallery, and the altar tables are marbled. The colors and techniques used in the marbling vary, but presumably all these marbled finishes date to the late nineteenth century (the marbling on the altar tables was likely present by 1899). The brightly painted red, blue, gold, white, and tan organ pipes may have been painted at the factory where repetitive stenciling would have been most practicable (photos 101-103). The decorative painting does not continue behind the frame or case that holds the pipes and the unpainted areas are off white in color. The 1899 photos show boldly patterned carpeting on the main level. Remnants of carpeting that appear to be nineteenth century in date survive in the confessionals (photos 98 and 99). The floral designs of these remnants differ from the carpet pattern shown in the 1899 photos. Architectural elements from the main level such as doors, kneelers, and a perforated railing that once extended between the pews and altar area (similar in design to the gallery railing) are stored in the basement storage area (photos 59 and 60). The circular window in the southeast gable end was in place by 1899. The stained glass has been replaced at least one time since that date. The radial panes in the earlier pattern were larger. They may have had the same colors as the stained glass in the arched bell tower window. Also in 1899 a piano or small organ was located next to the south confessional.
The sacristy has finishes that appear to date from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Graining on the sacristy’s door and window surrounds and on the vestment cabinet and armoire is similar in character to the nineteenth century graining elsewhere on the main level and may have been executed at the same time (photos 117 and 119). The decorative linoleum floor mat was laid above a 1921 issue of the Salt Lake City Tribune, so presumably it dates to after 1921 (photo 118). The linoleum is not unlike ornate tile-pattern linoleums offered for sale by Sears, Roebuck and Company in the early twentieth century. The October 14, 1939 issue of the Reese River Reveille reported that Alexander Reddit (Riddet) had repaired, replastered, and repainted the sacristy walls. The earliest paint color on the walls, under the present pink paint, is a pale green in color (photo 119). At one location the paint has a yellowish cast, although this may be the result of a chemical reaction with a cleaning product or for some other reason. The brick and metal sacristy safe appears twentieth century in construction (photo 120).
The finished basement rooms had ceilings consisting of cloth tacked to the undersides of the joists. There were at least three different cloth ceilings as indicated by the survival of three layers under the attachment of one of the ceiling lights (which were probably installed ca. 1940; photo 1). The first (earliest) layer is a gray muslin-like material; the second layer is a white muslin-like material; and the third (latest) layer is a cream-colored canvas-like material. The earliest cloth presumably dates to after the 1880 fire, since any earlier ceiling finish would have been water damaged when the fire was extinguished. Presumably the last layer was added when the basement was remodeled in 1939-40. No evidence for a non-cloth ceiling (such as plaster or wallpaper) was observed in any basement space. No evidence for a cloth or non-cloth ceiling was observed at the southeast end of the large room under the dais, although some sort of ceiling presumably existed since there are several generations of wallpaper ceiling borders on a level with the ceiling in the rest of the room and there is no evidence for wall finishes above that level under the dais.
Running between some joists are pipes that may have provided gas for lights in the church above. At the top of the exterior brick wall in the south corner of the main room are sockets or mortises where the ends of joists would rest; however, there are no joists at this location since the ceiling is raised to create the dais above. This may be evidence for an early raising of the ceiling (the ceiling structure is cut-nailed), along with the missing wall finishes described above, although an October 1866 account of the church while it was under construction suggests that a raised dais was an intended original feature. It may be that the joist sockets were mistakenly constructed in 1866 and then not used when the joists were placed at a higher level. Or they were left over from a change that occurred after the 1880 fire. In one of the cavities in the base of the dais is contained an axe with a red handle and a length of red string. Photo 2 was an attempt to photograph the axe, although only the red string, a modern nail, and wood shavings are visible. The axe appears to have been intentionally entombed in the cavity (the walling up of tools and other items of apparent symbolic significance is known on the East Coast). The modern nail may have been thrown up onto the edge of the flooring during construction of the bathroom partition below.
The floor in the main basement room is notable for its decorative painting, which covers the south end and center part of the room (photos 3 through 8). The painting features a yellow painted ground over which tan paint was applied. A comb was used to create an arcing grain pattern, apparently by being dragged through the tan paint while it was still wet to reveal the yellow paint underneath. The pattern formed by the area covered by the painting suggests it was done relatively recently, probably during the improvements made in 1939-40. The painting was not done in a large rectangular area at the center of the room (measuring approximately nine by eighteen feet) that may have been covered by a carpet or linoleum mat. Also, it does not cover the south corner, an area that may been the location of a bathroom, nor does it cover two spaces along the southeast and northeast walls that may have been the locations of bookshelves or other furniture. The December 16, 1939 issue of the Reese River Reveille may provide clues to the date of the painting: “The connecting of the Flamo [a toilet incinerator?] to the bathroom was done by Mr. Casady, a window-bench and new bookcase has been put in by Mr. Al Reddit. With the glass doors the parish rectory under the church has been made lots more cheerful.” The same column mentions Bill Bang, a “local Eureka painter and decorator” who painted the fence of the Catholic section of the Eureka cemetery at the time. It is possible Bang did the floor painting or possibly one of the Jolly brothers who were painting the murals on the main level during this period. If the floor painting does date to 1939-40, it is possible that its resemblance to graining is only superficial and that the painter actually had an Art Deco visual effect in mind. The basement wallpapers that apparently to date to the 1939-40 renovation were Art Deco in character.
Early Appearance The finished basement rooms at St. Augustine’s preserve a remarkable assemblage of historic wallpapers dating from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. The wallpaper reflects the evolving use of the space. According to an October 23, 1866 description of the church in the Reese River Reveille, the basement was “designed for a school room or dwelling.” Documentary confirmation of early school use appears in a March 25, 1867 advertisement for “St. Autin’s [sic] School (in the basement of the Catholic Church) under the charge of Professor A. B. O’Dougherty, late of Union College, San Francisco.” The discovery of a painted blackboard on the southeast wall of the room provides physical evidence for the existence of the school. The blackboard and the surrounding white wall surface lie under the first wallpaper layer on that wall. It may be that the rest of the basement had white unpapered walls initially as well. A simple white wall treatment may have been considered appropriate for a school.
The use of the basement for a school appears to have been discontinued at an early date and the space subdivided for other uses. The basement may have been adapted to uses of a more social character such as meeting rooms for church committees or for organizations that shared membership with the Catholic church. The Austin Circle of the Fenian Brotherhood and the Knights of Columbus-both active in Austin in the late nineteenth century-may have met in the basement. Another possibility is conversion to residential use, the alternative originally intended for the space. If so, the principal occupant may have been the pastor, in which case the basement would have been considered the rectory (in fact, a 1939 article referred to the “old rectory” in the basement). Nuns or other religious may have lodged in the basement in the nineteenth century, as is said to have been the case in the twentieth century.
The distribution of the earliest wallpapers (ones that appear to have been applied directly to the plaster or original white-painted finish) suggests the spatial layout of the first partitioning of the basement and may also provide information on the functional layout. A narrow passage appears to have been created to link the entry on the southwest wall with the nearly opposite doorway into the storage area and to provide access to rooms created to either side of the passage. There may have been two rooms on each side of the passage, with the outer rooms accessed through the inner rooms. The outer room on the northwest side of the passage would have been the extant smaller finished basement room, which may originally have served as the pastor’s study. The outer room on the southeast side, for which evidence is less strong, may have corresponded to the space under the altar dais.
The following list attempts to identify these spaces and their original wall treatments. Specialized terminology includes flocked/flocking (pulverized wool or felt glued to wallpaper to create a velvet effect), diapered/diapering (a latticed diamond pattern), and trompe l’oeil (French: “fool the eye;” a three-dimensional effect meant to mimic carving etc.). The wallpapers are identified as types and assigned numbers. Border papers are identified as separate types even when it is believed that they are associated with specific wallpapers.
1. Center passage: The passage appears to have had wood panel wallpaper (type 1, photos 15, 16, 36-38, 40) and a gold and green ceiling border (type 2, photos 12, 13) that survives in good condition over and to the left of the doorway to the storage area. The pattern is similar to the stone or ashlar pattern wallpapers that were recommended for entryways and hallways in the mid-nineteenth century. The patterns were considered well suited to spaces that received heavy traffic because a torn section of paper could be easily patched by pasting a new “stone” over the damaged one. Papers imitating marble blocks or wood paneling were also suggested for church interiors by manufacturers during the period. There is some evidence that the wood panel wallpaper is not as early as the papers in adjacent spaces, as discussed below, in which case the passage walls may have been unfinished originally.
2. Northwest side of passage, inner room: The room appears to have had a gray watered wallpaper (type 3, photos 71, 72) and an architectural ceiling border (type 4, photos 18-21). The room may have served as the pastor’s apartment, as suggested by: 1) the sedate character of the wallpaper; 2) the presence of the tongue-and-groove wainscot in the north corner of the room, which could be associated with kitchen and/or bathing use; and 3) proximity to the outer room, interpreted as the pastor’s study (see below).
3. Northwest side of passage, outer room: This room, which is separated from the rest of the finished basement by an original studwall partition, may have served as the pastor’s study or possibly as the schoolmaster’s study for the brief period that the school seems to have been in operation. The room’s two wallpapers appear to be twentieth century in date and are associated with a former division of the room into two smaller spaces (type 5, photo 9; type 6, photo 10). The papers may date to the 1939-40 remodeling of the basement. Before the wallpaper the room appears to have had white-painted plaster finishes. There is a ghost impression of a wall-mounted cabinet or shelving unit on one wall. Use of the room as a pastor’s study is suggested by: 1) its original date (a pastor’s study would have been an important original function); 2) its original simplicity (as with the schoolroom, unpapered walls may have been considered appropriate for a function related to study and contemplation; and 3) its proximity to the stair to the main level of the church. The room preserves two construction details of note, pictured in photo 11. One is concrete that was poured into the bottom of the cavities between the studs, perhaps as rodent proofing. The other is a strip of wood with painted letters used as a replacement lath. The wood appears to have come from a packing crate.
4. Southeast side of passage, inner room: The room appears to have had a vertical stripe gray wallpaper (type 7, photos 13, 14, 36, 37, 41) and a blue and green oak leaf and acorn ceiling border (type 8, photos 13, 14) that survives in good condition to the right of the doorway to the storage area. Opposite this wall and under one of the windows is the vertical trompe l’oeil gold stripe wallpaper that may have been selected to coordinate with the more intricately patterned gray paper. Satin papers have a shiny finish created by brushing or polishing the paper during production. They were advertised in the United States beginning in the late eighteenth century and became increasingly popular during the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1873 it was reported that a Philadelphia manufacturer achieved satin effects by polishing the paper with machine-driven Tampico grass brushes.
5. Southeast side of passage, outer room: This room (if in fact it was an originally separate room) appears to have had a wallpaper with alternating panels with blue and gray floral figures (type 9, photos 30-33, 52). A green and brown oak leaf and quatrefoil ceiling border may be associated with this paper (type 10, photos 63-67).
Assuming this interpretation of the basement’s first partitioning and wallpaper is correct or approximately so, some tentative statements may be made. The wallpaper is dominated by cool, light, neutral colors such as gray, blue, and off-white. This palette contrasts with the brighter and more varied colors of later generations of wallpaper in the rooms. The earliest ceiling borders, however, are more richly colored with green as the dominant color. There appears to be differentiation between the patterns of the wallpapers in the two (or one) rooms on the southeast side of the passage and the passage and northwest room. The southeast room(s) wallpapers are more decorative, which may relate to the presumed use of the space by laiety rather than priests or nuns and for activities that were not directly or exclusively religious in function.
Basment Walls: Later Appearance
As noted above, the colors of the wallpaper patterns from the later nineteenth century and early twentieth century tend to be richer and more varied than the earliest patterns. Several features carried through, however. Vertical striped patterns remained popular as did narrow ceiling borders. The preference for narrow borders was in keeping with mainstream fashion during the mid-nineteenth century but less up-to-date by the end of the century when borders-at least for high-end designer papers-grew much wider.
Several aspects of the later patterns are of interest. One is the diversity of patterns and stylistic influences. There are ceiling border patterns that emulate the incised floral “Eastlake” ornament popular during the 1870s and 1880s for furniture and architectural elements like mantels and staircases (type 11, photos 20-24; type 12, photos 18, 19). One wallpaper has an orientalist design of blossoms and leaves on an irregular lattice, possibly a product of the Japanese fad in interior design of the late nineteenth century or of the longer-duration interest in Chinese wallpapers that continued into the twentieth century (type 13, photos 41, 43, 55). Another paper emulates rococo or possibly Art Nouveau paneling with brilliant green emerald-like accents and green and red-orange floral elements (type 14, photos 44, 53, 55, 57). Several papers portray brightly colored arrangements of flowers and leaves. Flowers, leaves, and (in type 27) a vertical Greek key stripe were sometimes gilded. (Although a Greek key pattern might be considered to have been most popular during the middle decades of the nineteenth century when the Greek Revival style was in vogue, the pattern was promoted into the late 1880s.) Gilded and embossed or “stamp-gilt” papers became popular in the 1850s and 1860s. These papers used real gold leaf, adhered to the paper through a process of shellacking, pressure, and heat. An early example of gilded paper is the ceiling border of the wood panel paper in the former passage, described above (type 2). An identical gilded ceiling border-except that the ground color was red instead of green-was used in the space on the southeast side of the passage, although not as the original border in the space (type 15, photos 64, 68). There may be one or more layers of paint or plain paper interspersed among the layers of wallpaper. It is possible that some of these later wallpapers were applied in response to damage from the 1880 fire.
The last wallpapers were apparently added during the remodeling that took place in 1939-40. According to the December 16, 1939 issue of the Reese River Reveille: “The departments under the church have been fully decorated and the old rectory is slowly getting a new appearance.” (The use of the word “departments” may be meaningful; the word “apartments” [rooms] may have been meant, or the reference may have been to different functions or organizational meeting spaces.) There are two or possibly three wallpapers from this period that relate to the creation of a new partition approximately at the location of the northwest wall of the early center passage and the apparent creation of a bathroom in the south corner (the partition and bathroom were since removed). At the northwest end of the space is a beige cross-hatched paper (type 16, photos 36, 37, 47, 84) with a rainbow-hued Art Deco ceiling border (type 17, photos 18-23, 47). The southeast end, which embraces also the space of the former center passage, has a pinkish beige wallpaper with floral wreaths (type 18, photos 45, 61, 62, 73, 74) and a floral ceiling border (type 19, photos 61, 62). The southeast wall does not appear to have this floral wreath paper; its finish is a boldly patterned rococo or Colonial Revival floral wallpaper that was glued on face down and a thin beige paper applied over it (type 29, photo 57). This plain treatment may reflect the fact that about half of the wall surface was inside the bathroom and the other half was partially obscured by a piece of furniture (either a dresser, sideboard, or bookcase). The painted floor treatment discussed below was integrated with these wall finishes. One of the wallpapers in the smaller finished basement room is similar to the beige cross-hatched paper in the other room (types 6 and 16).
Two notable fragments or caches of historic wallpaper were discovered during the wallpaper investigations. Parts of a French-language wallpaper was pasted to the northeast wall near the stove pipe hole in the east corner, perhaps to consolidate damaged plaster (photos 28, 29, 44). Not enough of the paper survives to determine its source and date with certainty but a number of clues suggest it is a New Orleans newspaper dating to around 1870. The fragment includes a list of mostly French names, perhaps tax delinquents, that includes Louis Thebaut. A search of the 1880 United States census and the 1881 Canadian census turns up one Louis Thebaut (born 1844), a white mail clerk residing in New Orleans. (1880 U.S. census searches for other names on the list proved unsuccessful.) References to San Francisco and a New York furniture store and to British and Irish names (Waller, S. Johnson, Mme. Shea) suggest an American city like New Orleans that had ties to other American cities and possessed a sizable non-French population. An advertisement or testimonial for a medicine, elixir, or cordial notes that it received a “medaille unique 1867, d’argent 1868,” which indicate the fragment does not date to before 1868 and probably dates to 1868 or soon thereafter. Part of a San Francisco newspaper was used to plug a gap between the bricks and the door frame of the doorway from the smaller finished room to the storage area. The fragment includes an announcement for the upcoming June 27, 1898, stockholders meeting of Pacific Militant Printing and Publishing Company. In addition to these fragments one small scrap of newspaper was observed adhered to the back of wallpaper type 9. It may have stuck to the wallpaper while it was being hung. If other fragments are found on the back of this paper (or others), they may provide clues to the date the wallpaper was hung.
Description of Wallpapers and Wall Cloth Types
Type 1. Wallpaper with an architectural motif of wood panels; the paper is beige or stone color onto which are printed figures in tones of gray and satin (reflective) silver; the panels consist of 7-inch by 2-7/16-inch inner panels with quarter-round cut-out corners and satin grain pattern, and an outer border measuring 8-7/16 inches by 3-3/4 inches; running between the panels is a bead-and-reel border with shading that creates a three-dimensional effect; goes with type 2 border (photos 15, 16, 36-38, 40).
Type 2. Ceiling border fragment with a decorative stamped gold band below a gold criss-cross pattern, perhaps diapering, on green flocking; the design has a medieval or Renaissance character; identical to type 15 border except for color (green instead of red); goes with type 1 wallpaper (photos 12, 13).
Type 3. Wallpaper in two tones of gray with an abstracted “watered” pattern apparently meant to evoke watered silk; goes with type 4 border (photos 71, 72).
Type 4. Ceiling border with an architectural motif with an upper band of abstracted olive drab and tan dentils, a flocked green middle band with a dark green scalloped lower border, and a lower band with horizontal gold and tan stripes; goes with type 3 wallpaper (photos 18-21).
Type 5. Wallpaper with floral repeats and vertical stripes on light blue; the floral repeats have flowers in pink and off white in alternating larger and smaller sprays; the stripe consists of a reflective silver double-helix; there are traces of a label that reads “Commerc . . . washable . . . conf;” the wallpaper occurs in northeast half of smaller finished room (photo 9).
Type 6. Wallpaper with a light beige cross-hatched or diapered pattern reminiscent of its probable contemporary, type 16; there may have been a ceiling border of which only a tiny fragment with a brown-edged lower border survives; the wallpaper occurs in the southwest half of the smaller finished room (photo 10).
Type 7. Wallpaper with alternating wide vertical stripes on a light gray ground; one stripe has a series of narrow satin silver lines that create a reflective vertical band; the other stripe is 6-3/16 inches on center and 2-7/16 inches wide with a filigree pattern and stippling in very light gray and beige vertical borders; goes with type 8 border (photos 13, 14, 36, 37, 41).
Type 8. Ceiling border with three-dimensional shading effects; the upper band of flocked dark green has blue oak leaves and acorns (printed on the flocking) between six-pointed star ornaments that hang from swags, the stars and swags in white, gray and dark gray; the lower, narrower band is white, gray, and dark gray with a repeat of alternating three-pronged or fleur-de-lis ornaments and a bead-like motif with white highlights; goes with type 7 wallpaper (photos 13, 14).
Type 9. Wallapaper with alternating wide vertical panels; one panel has blue florets in gold settings at the intersections of a gold lattice or diaper pattern; in the lattice openings are gray florets; the lattice and gray florets are readily apparent on only one section of exposed paper near the numeral “369” printed on a border; the other panel has large gray floral repeats (peonies or roses); the two panels are divided by a gray stripe (a trellis support?) that gray foliage overlaps; the colors of this paper are faded or have been degraded by the application of later papers making a definitive determination of the original colors difficult; may go with type 10 border (photos 30-33, 52).
Type 10. Ceiling border fragment with medieval design and three-dimensional shading effects; the main band has panels and quatrefoils defined by light and dark green lines on a green ground, with oak leaves, buds, and perhaps other designs in shades of tan and cream in the panels and buttons or beaten nail head designs in tan and cream in the quatrefoils; the lower, narrower band has a fret and foliage or floral repeat in shades of brown and tan; may go with type 9 wallpaper (photos 63-67).
Type 11. Ceiling border with a scalloped repeat on a pink or terra cotta ground (the pink or terra cotta color may be the result of degradation from the glue used to adhere later wallpapers); periodically the scallops are interrupted by a foliated device in shades of cream and tan; in and under the scallops are light blue arabesques; the scallops have a Pompeiian color scheme of cream, ochre, terra cotta, and black; the scallops may have at least two designs, the second design similar to the foliated devices in color and form; the glue of overlying papers appears to have altered the colors of this border; one fragment shows that the ground was originally flocked and suggests its color may have been purple, making it similar in color and design to type 25 ceiling border; may go with type 21 paper (photos 20-24).
Type 12. Ceiling border with a large geometric angular repeat reminiscent of Renaissance leatherwork; the figures are green with a dark maroon border and are patterned with bright blue arabesques, all flocked; there is also a double gold border and a gold oak leaf-like ornament between the figures (the gold is not flocked); apparently goes with type 20 wallpaper (photos 18, 19).
ype 13. Wallpaper with an orientalist design of blossoms, leaves and branches in black-outlined white, light gray, and gold on an irregular black-outlined gold lattice; may go with type 22 ceiling border (photos 41, 43, 55).
Type 14. Wallpaper with vertical neo-rococo or possibly Art Nouveau paneling; the panels have shades of tan creating a three-dimensional carved woodwork effect with guilloche-like edges, lenticular cartouches, brilliant green emerald-like accents, and orange-red florets with green leaves; may go with type 23 or type 25 border (photos 44, 53, 55, 57, 80).
Type 15. Ceiling border fragment with a decorative stamped gold band below a gold criss-cross pattern, perhaps diapering, on red flocking; the design has a medieval or Renaissance character; identical to type 2 border except for color (red instead of green) (photos 64, 68).
Type 16. Wallpaper with cross-hatched or diapered pattern; primarily beige with subtle multiple hues reminiscent of the iridescent “Jazz painting” of the 1920s and 1930s; goes with type 17 border (photos 36, 37, 47, 84).
Type 17. Ceiling border (widest in the basement) with an abstracted Art Deco pattern of rays and bubble-like figures; rays and bubbles in pastel blue, rose, yellow, and beige; gilded or bronzed upper and lower borders; upper part of border with a grayish stippling on off white; this is the most extensive surviving paper in the basement; goes with type 16 wallpaper (photos 18-23, 47).
Type 18. Wallpaper of pinkish beige with slightly darker pinstripes, colorful floral wreaths, and small flower clusters sprinkled over the stripes; printed on edge are a monogram incorporating the letters A and O, “U.W.P.C. of N.A. Union Made,” “Run 4,” and “0859;” goes with type 19 border (photos 45, 61, 62, 73, 74).
Type 19. Ceiling border (relatively wide) with a floral motif in pastel colors (blue, pink, yellow) and shades of beige; the lower band has a pattern of rounded garden wickets; goes with type 18 wallpaper (photos 61, 62).
Type 20. Wallpaper with gilded floral repeat on light blue; apparently goes with type 12 border (photos 25-27; 46?).
Type 21. Wallpaper with brightly colored floral repeat, golden tendrils, and a gold chain-like vertical stripe on 6.75-inch center, all on cream; may go with type 11 or type 23 borders (photos 25, 26, 46; 71? 75?).
Type 22. Ceiling border fragment with gilding and olive green; may go with type 13 wallpaper; this border may be the same as type 23 (no photo).
Type 23. Ceiling border fragments with a leaf design (ivy?) in shades of olive drab; may go with type 21 wallpaper (photos 34, 35).
Type 24. Wallpaper with a pattern of dark green hatchings on olive green; abstracted floral designs rendered with white outlines and pink and green accents; more naturalistic pink flowers (including roses) with green foliage; possibly a double pink stripe; goes with type 26 border (photos 49-51, 54-56, 80).
Type 25. Ceiling border with what looks like strands of white pearls, possibly white starbursts, and tan-outlined swag-like motifs on a flocked purplish brown or maroon ground with a gold and brown striped lower edge; the pearls and starburst are printed on the flocking and have a pinkish cast, perhaps from the flocking pigment; similar to type 11 ceiling border; may go with type 14 wallpaper (photos 49-51, 57).
Type 26. Ceiling border with stylized (possibly Japanese-inspired) design of flowers, stems, and leaves in blue, gray, ocher, and pink on olive drab with a gray lower edge; goes with type 24 wallpaper (photos 49-51).
Type 27. Wallpaper with a gilded vertical stripe with a Greek key motif; the Greek key is interrupted by a floret or starburst motif with a gray center button and has a border of tiny triangles or spearheads in light gray; there may have been a gilded floral repeat between the stripes and it is possible that the stripe was used horizontally under the windows to the left of the entry (photos 69, 70).
Type 28. Wallpaper fragment only observed under the window to the left of the entry; has a double gold or yellow stripe with lighter shadow lines in shades of gray to create dimensionality; pilasters may have been the intended effect (photos 76, 77).
Type 29. Wallpaper mounted face down; its printed side has a boldly patterned rococo or Colonial Revival pattern with flowers, leaves, and cartouches in pink, green, gray and white; a thin beige paper appears to have been applied over the paper as the finished surface (photo 57).
Type 30. Wall cloth of a dark green canvas-like material attached with tacks with iridescent blue and occasionally purple heads; the fact that these tacks appear on much of the northeast wall suggests this cloth and possibly also the type 31 cloth formerly covered more of the wall (photos 36-39, 42).
Type 31. Wall cloth of white or off white muslin-like material; similar to ceiling cloths used in the room (photos 39, 42).
Saint Augustine’s Catholic Church Rehabilitation Plan
prepared for St. Augustine’s Cultural Center
by Peter Serafin, Architect
Carter + Burton P.L.C.
11 W. Main St.,
Berryville, VA 22611
J. Daniel Pezzoni, Architectural Historian
Landmark Preservation Associates
6 Houston St., Lexington, VA 24450 (540) 464-5315